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Історична мозаіка в математиці


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Card 16
II. Task: your friend has sent you a CD as a present. Write a card to him/her. Include this information: thank him/her for the CD; ask him/her where he/she got it; say when you plan to listen to it. Write 35-45 words on your answer sheet.
Answer: Dear friend! If you had asked me what I wanted for my birthday, I’d said, "A CD with the songs by Sting.” You just couldn’t have selected anything I liked more!
I’ve been looking for the CD for weeks! Where have you found it, I wonder? Anyway, it’s exactly the one I’ve desired. I’m planning to listen to it tonight at a disco party where all my friends are going to come.
Thank you once more! You have a positive genius for selecting the right gift! With love/ Bye, -
III. Task: Think about a book you have read recently. Make a review of the book. Include this information:  its title, author and type of book: where the plot is set, who the main characters are, what the story is; what your opinion of it is and why.
Answer: I can’t say that I’m a book warm – I read books now and that and actually prefer to watch films or play computer games/ but recently I’ve read a book which really impressed me a lot. It is "Jonathan Livingston Seagull” by Richard Bach. Richard Bach is a writer and pilot, author of three books on the mystique of flying. During the past decade or so, he has edited a flying magazine, and written more than a hundred magazine articles and stories. A former US Air Force Pilot, he is now seldom without an airplane. Richard Bach’s story about a seagull is a profound hilosophical
treatise in which the author tackles the eternal issues of being happy, useful, finding one’s place in life and the purpose of living. Jonathan is an ordinary gull but his striving to be perfect in flying is
extraordinary. More than anything in life Jonathan enjoys flying and practicing his skills. As a result he neglects the laws of the Flock and the other gulls treat him as an Outcast. For Jonathan this dramatic turn of events served right as he found himself among more spirited and powerful seagulls. Finally he not only learned how to fly above all limits but also acquired important knowledge of how to achieve perfection – both physical and spiritual. Though the gull has reached the pinnacle of his dreams, Jonathan doesn’t feel satisfied till one day he returns to his native Flock, finds loyal followers and does everything to convince them that there are other goals in this life apart from eating and leading a safe undisturbed life.
The whole story and Jonathan himself are very human and evoke a lot of associations. I strongly recommend everybody, and especially young people who think about the future, to read this book.
Card 17
 II. Task: write an e-mail to a friend about a film you have seen recently. Include this information: what kind of film it is; what happen in it; why you like it. Write 35-45 words on your answer sheet.
Answer: Hi, buddy, Last night I had nothing to do and decided to watch ‘Twilight” series – remember you gave me the CD a week ago? I had never thought I could like such a film, cause all this vampire stuff and soppy love stories are not in my line at all! But the special effects in the film are really cool and the sound track is incredible. Now I understand why the world is crazy about it. I want to read the book, they say it is even better than the film. Do you like the film? Have you read the book? Don’t you know, by the way, where I can get it? Bye, -
III. Task: Discuss advantages and disadvantages of different means of transport. Include this information: which mean of transport you have  travelled by; which one you liked most and why; why people choose this or that mean of transport. Good morning, my name is … and I’m a student of the 9th form. I would like to tell you about my attitude to travelling and my travelling experience.
Nowadays travelling seems to become a new world religion. To understand it you should just go to an airport or a railway station. Thousands of peoples travel every day in different directions.
They use different means of transport. It depends, of course, on the purpose of travelling, on the time people can spent on travelling and not in the last turn on money they have. As for me, I like travelling and have already been to many places of the country. As a rule I do it with my family. For short distances we use our car. Every weekend we try to go to the country to enjoy the peace and quiet of unspoilt nature. We also take our car when we visit our granny who lives in the other region, or going to Kyiv. Of course, travelling by car can be tiresome for the driver, because he/she have to be attentive and careful not to get in an accident. Besides you should have your car checked if you are planning a distant trip. And sometimes you can have problems with parking aces. If we go on holidays we usually take a train. To mi mind, a fast train is the most comfortable way of travelling. A compartment in a modern carriage is like a small cozy room. You can sleep, read, or just enjoy the scenery through the window. I prefer to take an upper berth when travelling by train. In a long-distance train there is also a buffet-car, where you can have a tasty meal. Of course if there is no through train to the place of destination you’ll have to change trains, and it’s not always convenient, especially if you are travelling with a lot of luggage or with little children. Travelling abroad or on business people prefer to take a plane. It’s the fastest way of travelling, but it also has some drawbacks. First of all it’s the ticket price – plane tickets are xtremely expensive in our country. Then you depend on the weather forecast – your flight can be delayed because of the bad weather conditions and you’ll have to spend some hours or even days in the airport, desperately waiting for the flight. Besides, travelling by plane is a bit boring, though nowadays you can entertain yourself by watching some films or listening to music. As for the sea voyage or a river trip, I must admit that it isn’t my way of travelling, because I have a seasick. But I think that a sea cruise on board the modern liner can be a real adventure. My favourite means of transport is the car. Travelling by car you can make your own time-table, go wherever you want and stop at any place you like. Besides, my father teaches me to drive and even let me drive a bit in some desert places. So I vote for the car.
Card 18
II. Task: imagine that a relative  has given you a watch as a present for your birthday. Write a thank-you letter. Include this information: thank your relative for the present and describe the day; why it was so memorable; what other presents you received. Write 35-45 words on your answer sheet.  Dear Aunt Mary,  Thank you so much for the perfectly wonderful watch you have sent me for my birthday. It’s exactly what I wanted to have, but I didn’t think I’d be lucky enough to get it as a gift! My birthday party was unforgettable. My mum and dad decided to make a surprise for me and arranged everything secretly. When they took me to the café, I was sure that there will be only 3 of us. I was simply stunned when I saw all my friends in a beautifully decorated hall. The party was fantastic! My parents gave me a new mobile phone – exactly the model I had desired. And my friends gave me a lot of lovely gifts. My mum and dad send you best wishes. We all miss you very much. Yours, -
III. Task: While you are staying in Britain, your teacher asks you to prepare a presentation of a typical holiday or celebration in your country. You have decided to prepare a report about Easter. nclude this information: introduce the subject; what students will learn from the report; a date and time of your presentation.
Answer: If my British friends asked me to tell them about a Ukrainian holiday, I would definitely choose Easter. In Ukraine it is a very big and important holiday - even bigger than Christmas - with very rich and interesting tradition. If it is interesting to you, we send you some information about celebrating the holiday here. By the way, on Sunday morning at dawn we always go to the church to bless the food. Easter is the feast of Christ’s resurrection, which in its observance combines both pagan and Christian elements. Easter (in Ukrainian: ‘Velykden’ or ‘Paskha’) is preceded by seven weeks of Lent and celebrated on each first week after vernal equinox and full moon. It is the most cheerful holiday for orthodox believers. In Ukraine Easter is called Velykden (The Great Day). In Ukraine Easter has been celebrated over a long period of history and has had many rich folk traditions. Ukrainian Easter is a historical combination of heathen and Christian traditions.Velykden was celebrated thousands of years ago as the victory of the Light over the Dark, Day over Night, Spring over Winter. The Resurrection was celebrated only from 988 when Kiev Rus was baptized. For some time these two systems coexisted, for some time it was forbidden for people to follow heathen traditions, but later the church decided to use in its Easter ceremony the eathen customs like painting eggs and backing Easter cake.
The last Sunday before Easter is called Willow Sunday (Verbna nedilia). On this day pussy-willow branches are blessed in the church. Then people tap each other - and especially children!- with this branches and repeat the aswish "Be as tall as the willow, as healthy as the water and as rich as the earth! Not I am tapping - the willow is tapping! In a week it is Easter!" People believe that this ritual brings health and good luck.
The week before Easter, the Great (Velykyi) Week (Holy Week), is called the White (Bilyi) or Pure (Chystyi) Week. During this time an effort is made to finish all field work before Thursday, since from Thursday on work is forbidden. Pure (Maundy) Thursday is connected with ritual of clarification by water.
On Passion (Strasna) Friday—Good Friday—no work is done. In some localities, the Holy Shroud (plashchanytsia) is carried solemnly three times around the church and, after appropriate services, laid out for public veneration.
Saturday evening people gather in the church for the Easter vigil till the very morning when priests bless the food believers brought. After that people go home to celebrate Easter with their families. If they meet other people on the way they say: "Christ is risen!” and these people should reply "Risen indeed”. All the people exchange Easter greetings and give each other painted eggs (krashanky).
Easter cake (’Kulich’) and painted eggs (’Krashanki’) are the symbols of Ukrainian Easter and obligatory food on the table this day. Kulich is baked from yeast dough in the form of cylinder.Krashanka is a boiled and painted egg. On this Day Ukrainian kids play their favorite Easter game: knocking the eggs. If you knock somebody’s egg and you egg is not broken than you are the winner.
The krashanky and pysanky (Easter eggs) are an old pre-Christian element and have an important role in the Easter rites. On this day they are given as gifts or exchanged. There is also the rite of sprinkling with water, which is still carried on in Western Ukraine on the next day afrer Easter (Wet Monday, Oblyvanyi ponedilok). It is practiced by young people, the boys usually splashing the girls with water.
During the Easter season in Ukraine the cult of the dead is observed. The dead are remembered during the whole week after Easter, especially on the first Sunday following Easter Sunday. People gather in the cemeteries, bringing with them a dish containing some food and wine, which they consume, leaving the rest at the graves.
Card 19(2011)
II Task: Imagine, that you and your friends are members of a new music fan club. Plan and write an Internet page describing your club. Include this information: why and when the club started; number of members joining the club weekly/monthly; ; who can join the club.
 Answer: Music Lovers Club appeared in May, 200, to gather together all music lovers from Savchuk St, Chernihiv. At first we met on Sunday at one of our member’s place. Now we have a spacious Internet-café at 13,Savchuk St, where we meet every evening to exchange the latest information in the world of modern music. We have a swap-shop every month, where we can exchange CDs and DVDs with our favourite music  and have a lot of friends throughout Ukraine and abroad. 20 new friends are joining the club weekly.(це додаткова інформація, яка мала б знаходитись на сайті, якщоб ви дійсно його створювали. Використовувати її у письмовій відповіді на екзамені НЕОБОВ’ЯЗКОВО:  We feel privileged that you have visited our website and for your convenience have provided below a brief overview of the things that you will find on www.MLC. Com Under the Home tab we provide information on ML Club which owns MLC.com and over 10 other music – related websites. This section is also provide a brief description of our Club and links to other parts of the site.
One of the most exciting tabs on our site is the MusicZone. Here we provide Music Global Event database add and search for a multitude of music themed events throughout the world. Under the News tab the site has provided links and direct feeds from the top music recording companies.
We also provide a song section with over 3 000 free songs and records to entertain you and your friends.
Lastly we provide you the opportunity to post your comments on our MLC Blog which we call The MusicBeat.)
Everybody who likes music and share our tastes can join the club.
III Task: Talk about the  town/city/village where you live. Include this information: the location; means of transport; places that are worth visiting; things to do and see( e.g. libraries, museums).
 Answer: Chernihiv is one of the most ancient cities on the territory of Ukraine. It is situated on the right bank of the river Desna. The city is the political, administrative, educational, cultural and business center of Chernihiv region. Although the population of the city is 300 000 citizens, Chernihiv is rather compact in area. Its compactness makes an important advantage; it doesn’t take much time to get whenever you need. However, it has a certain drawback: the traffic can be rather heavy, especially in the center.
The city has several residential areas, which are connected by several transport routes. Nearly all of them go through the center of the city. Trolleybus is the cheapest means of transport, but it is also the slowest one. It can be overcrowded with pupils students and retired people, because they have advantages in fares. "Marshroutkas” travel faster and the variety of routs is greater. You may take a taxi as well. It is really the fastest and the most convenient transport, but it is expensive. As for me, I can afford it only at some special occasions.
Young people can find any activities which corresponds to their tastes. There are a lot of different sport facilities, fitness clubs, 4 big stadiums, a swimming pool for those who are keen on sport. If you prefer to spend your time more calmly, you can visit one of our city libraries or museums, go to the Philarmonic, the Drama theatre or Youth theatre. There are some night clubs and discos, if you prefer to hang out with your friends.
As for the parks and green places, we are really proud that our city consider to be one of the greenest cities in Ukraine – more than 30 sq m of greenery allotted to each citizen of it. So, whenever you go in Chernihiv – you will find yourself in a cozy park, garden or an alley. The most famous are the Rampart or the Val, as we call it, the Boldin Hill and the central city park In summer you will spend unforgettable hours on the beaches of the beautiful Desna.We really love and proud of our city.( for your answer you can also use the information from card 9 and essays by our students from the page „Кращі твори”)
Card 20
II Task: you want to join a pen friend’s site on the Internet. Write an e-mail to your pen friend, include this information: briefly describe how you look and what kind of person you are; write about your interests.
Write 35-45 words on your answer sheet.
Answer: Hi, pal, I’m 15, tall, sporty, keen on surfing the Internet and meeting new people. I also like listening to music, especially songs in English. I think that Ricky Martin and   the Beatles are the best and collect all the information about them. English is my favourite foreign language, so for me it would be really cool to e-mail with some native speakers.
Hope I will join your site soon.
III Task: Describe the ideal day off you would like to have. What activities would you do? How would this day be different than other days? Do you think it’s possible to have a perfect day? Explain.
 Answer: Everybody dreams about a perfect day of the life. We want to have the whole day at our own to be able to go wherever we want, to see whatever we dream about, to do whatever we like.Of course, tastes differ, and each of us have there own thoughts as for the perfect day. When I try to imagine a perfect day of my life, there is at least one thing I’m sure about: this is the day when I don’t have to study.
As I really love nature and tries to spend as much time as possible outdoors, I would definitely spend my perfect day somewhere far away from the hectic and busy city. Of course, some people would prefer to travel to some exotic country, some tropical island, but I feel really good in our places, so I would prefer to find a picturesque spot on the bank of the river with a forest nearby. Of course, the weather would be absolutely fantastic – a warm and sunny day in July, with cloudless blue sky, light breeze and peace and calmness of high summer.
Frankly speaking I’m sick and tired of crowds, so I would take only some close friends with me. I don’t want to make a mess of my perfect day. Roaming the forest,  swimming and paddling in the river, making the fire we would forget that somewhere, not far from this place, there exists our civilization and people are busy with everyday routine. All the problems and the things, which have been bothering you, would disappear for the day.
If you ask me, the perfect day is the one when you are absolutely free in your thoughts, desires and activities. The cherished dream of the whole mankind has always been freedom. And in fact we so rarely can be fully free, because of all our duties, of all those rules and obligations that society lay on us.
So if you ask me whether it is possible to have a perfect day, my answer will be definitely yes. You should just feel free and happy, choose the right time, the right place and the right people.
There is nothing impossible for us, if only we really want it. 
( ви можете також зайти на сторінку „Кращі твори” та прочитати твори Ирини Дасюк та Алини Шумної "Do you think it is possible to have a perfect day?”)

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