Political System of the USA
The USA is a
federative republic. In 1776, when the Independence of the USA was
declared, 13 "founding" states entered the federation; from 1959 the
federation comprises 50 states.
D. C. is the seat of the federal Government of the United States. The federal
Government is made up of three branches - the Executive, the Legislative and
the Judicial. The function of the Executive branch is to carry out the laws of
nation. It consists of the President, Vice -President and the President's
Cabinet. The members of the Cabinet are chosen by the President.
President is head of the State of the executive departments. He is also
Commander-in-Chief of the Army and Navy of the USA. The President
and Vice-President are elected for a term of four years. The President is
elected indirectly in two stages: first electors are chosen in their respective
states, and these elected the President and Vice-President, running together on
the first Monday after the first Tuesday in November.
legislative powers are vested in Congress that consists of the Senate and the
House of Representatives. Members of the House of Representatives (453 persons)
are chosen every second year. Senators (100 persons) are elected for a term of
six years, two senators from each state. The Senate may also initiate any bill
with the exception of financial ones; these may be introduced only by the House
of Representatives. The Senate may not adopt any bill introduced by the House
of Representatives or make amendments to it.
House of Representatives the presiding officer is the Speaker who is elected by
the members and is always a member of the majority party in the House. In the
USA Congress the Speaker plays a very important role in party policies. He appoints
members of Congressional Committees.
main work of the Congress is done in Committees. The Congressional Houses have
a system of Committees – 16 in the Senate and 20 in the House of
Representatives. Every bill is worked out there.
main parties dominate the political scene of the USA. The Democratic
Party was founded in 1783 and got its present name in 1828. The Republican
Party was founded in 1854. Neither of them have a permanent membership.